Self Development » Adapting Your Learning Styles
 Learning Styles

Learning Styles are simply different approaches or ways of learning and everyone has a preferred learning style. Knowing and understanding our learning style helps us to learn more effectively. 

One model of learning commonly used states that there are basic styles:

  • Activists prefer to learn by doing;
  • Theorists arethose who like to learn the theory of things;
  • Pragatists need to be able to see how to put the learning into practice;
  • Reflectors learn by observing and thinking about what happened.

While most people have a preferred style, in practice people tend to have traits or preferences from some or all these basic groupings.  In practice, it is alsopossible to train yourself to strengthen a style in which you do not consider to be strong.

Learning Styles are simply different approaches or ways of learning and everyone has a preferred learning style. Knowing and understanding our learning style helps us to learn more effectively. 

One model of learning commonly used states that there are basic styles:

  • Activists prefer to learn by doing;
  • Theorists arethose who like to learn the theory of things;
  • Pragatists need to be able to see how to put the learning into practice;
  • Reflectors learn by observing and thinking about what happened.

While most people have a preferred style, in practice people tend to have traits or preferences from some or all these basic groupings.  In practice, it is alsopossible to train yourself to strengthen a style in which you do not consider to be strong.

 Print   
 Adapting Your Learning Styles

BALANCING AND ADAPTING LEARNING STYLES

You are best equipped to learn from a wide variety of different experiences if you have more or less equal preferences for all four learning styles. This is because the stages in the learning cycle are equal contributors to the total process of learning from experience.

STRENGTHENING YOUR THEORIST STYLE

Theorists tend to be rational and analytical. They like logical structures and to ask probing questions to expose flawed, inconsistent thinking.

The implications of having an underdeveloped Theorist style are that you will tend to:

•  Take things at face value and jump to conclusions that are flimsy and unsubstantiated
•  Prefer short term tactics to longer term strategy and fail to appreciate the importance of the big picture
•  Dislike the discipline of routines, processes and procedures
•  Regard theories, frameworks and models as being rather academic and esoteric.

So, by developing your Theorist style you will be:

•  Better at questioning and probing inconsistencies and weaknesses in people's arguments.
•  More interested in relating your actions to an overall strategy
•  More disciplined with tidier, more organised working practices
•  More tolerant of models and theories and of explaining their potential relevance/usefulness to your work.

How to Strengthen your Theorist Style

The first task is to decide what aspects you would like to develop.

•  Read something 'heavy' and thought-provoking for at least 30 minutes each day. Try tackling a text book on management or read some philosophy. Whatever you elect to read, afterwards try to summarise it in your own words.

•  Practise spotting inconsistencies/weaknesses in other people's arguments. Go through reports highlighting inconsistencies. Analyse organisation charts to discover overlaps and conflicts. Take two newspapers of different persuasions and regularly do a comparative analysis of the differences in their points of view.

•  Take a complex situation and analyse it to pinpoint why it developed the way it did. What could have been done differently and at what stage? The situations could be historical or something drawn from current affairs, or something you have been involved in personally. You could, for example, do a detailed analysis of how you spend your time, or list the people you interact with, with what frequency and with what results.

•  Collect other people's theories, hypotheses and explanations about events; they might be about environmental issues, theology, the natural sciences, human behaviour - anything providing it is a topic with many different, and preferably contradictory, theories. Try to understand the underlying assumptions each theory is based upon and see if you can group similar theories together.

•  Practise structuring situations so that they are orderly and more certain to proceed in the way you predict. For example, plan a conference where delegates are going to work in different groupings. Structure the timetable, the tasks, the plenary sessions. Or try structuring a meeting by having a clear purpose, an agenda and a planned beginning, middle and end.

•  Practise asking probing questions - the sort of questions that get to the bottom of things. Refuse to be fobbed off with platitudes or vague answers. Particularly ask questions designed to find out precisely why something has occurred: "Why is absenteeism increasing?", "Why do more women than men smoke?", "What is the relationship between this problem and what happened last week?"


STRENGTHENING AN UNDER DEVELOPED ACTIVIST STYLE

Activists tend to be flexible, open minded and happy to try out new things. They enjoy getting involved and participating with others

The implications of having an underdeveloped Activist style are that you will tend to:

•  Be wary of going at risk and having a go at something you haven't tried before
•  Be reluctant to go outside your comfort zone and experiment with new or unfamiliar ways of doing things
•  Find it difficult to suspend judgement and think 'outside the box'/think laterally/innovatively
•  Be suspicious of decisions based more on intuition and what 'feels right' than on hard data/logic.

So, by developing your Activist style you will be:

•  Prepared to take more calculated risks and try something earlier with less preparation
•  Happier to experiment with new and unfamiliar routines and processes
•  Better able to brainstorm spontaneous, off-the-top-of-the-head, creative ideas
•  Less dependent on exhaustive data collection prior to making decisions on the best way forward.



How to Strengthen your Activist Style

The first task is to decide what aspects you would like to develop.

•  Do something new, i.e. something that you have never done before, at least once each week. Visit a part of your organisation you have neglected, go jogging at lunch time, wear something outrageous to work one day, read an unfamiliar newspaper with very different views to your own, change the layout of your office, etc.

•  Practise initiating conversations (especially 'small talk') with strangers. Select people at random from your internal telephone directory and go and talk to them. At large gatherings, conferences or parties, force yourself to initiate and sustain conversations with everyone present. In your spare time, go door to door canvassing for a cause of your choice.

•  Deliberately fragment your day by chopping and changing activities each half hour. Make the switch as diverse as possible, for example, if you have had half an hour of cerebral activity, switch to doing something utterly routine and mechanical. If you have been sitting down, stand up. If you have been talking, keep quiet, and so on.

•  Force yourself into the limelight. Volunteer whenever possible to chair meetings or give presentations. When you attend a meeting, set yourself the challenge of making a substantial contribution within 10 minutes of the start of the meeting. Get on a soapbox and make a speech at Speaker's Corner.

•  Practise thinking aloud and on your feet. Set yourself a problem and bounce ideas off a colleague (see if, between you, you can generate 50 ideas in 10 minutes). Get some colleagues/friends to join in a game where you give each other topics and have to give an impromptu speech lasting at least 5 minutes.


STRENGHTENING AN UNDER DEVELOPED REFLECTOR STYLE

Reflectors tend to be methodical, thorough and careful. They enjoy gathering data by reading and listening.

The implications of having an underdeveloped Reflector style are that you will tend to:

•  Rush into things with inadequate preparation and thought for the possible consequences
•  Find it difficult to make time to pause and review experiences/identify lessons learned
•  Become impatient with data collection, reading extensively and listening hard for long periods
•  Pay insufficient attention to benefiting from other people's experiences and therefore make unnecessary mistakes and reinvent wheels.

So, by developing your Reflector style you will be:

•  Happier to engage in thorough preparation prior to decision making/problem solving
•  Prepared to set time aside to mull over experiences, clarify lessons learned and think through what to do better or differently
•  More patient with researching a topic, gathering relevant data and generally checking things out
•  More respectful of other people's experiences and a better listener.

How to Strengthen your Reflector Style

The first task is to decide what aspects you would like to develop.

The next step is to plan some actions that will give you practice in developing your Reflector style. Before planning these actions it is best to consider what is inhibiting you from being more of a Reflector, which may include:

•  being short of time to plan or think
•  preferring to move quickly from one activity to another
•  being impatient for action
•  a reluctance to listen carefully and analytically
•  a reluctance to write things down.

One route is simply to choose an item you crossed and experiment with behaving that way on some occasions. This might, however, be too contrary to your preferred ways of thinking and behaving. If so, it might suit you to pick up one of the specific suggestions below.

The actions with which you plan to improve your Reflector style must be feasible and specific. Clearly you are more likely to action the plan if you avoid flinging yourself in at the deep end; it is best to start in the shallow end and graduate to deeper water.

Depending on your starting point, some of the suggestions that follow might strike you as too ambitious. If so, you might like to break them down into smaller, more feasible steps. Since your development plans need to be tailor-made to suit your circumstances, we can only offer a variety of suggestions in the hope that they act as useful thought starters.

•  Practise observing, especially at meetings where there are agenda items that do not directly involve you. Study people's behaviour. Keep records about who does the most talking, who interrupts whom, what triggers disagreements, how often the chairperson summarises and so on. Also study non-verbal behaviour. When do people lean forward and lean back? Count how many times people emphasise a point with a gesture. When do people fold their arms, look at their watches, chew their pens etc?

•  Keep a diary and each evening write an account of what happened during the day. Reflect on the day's events and see if you can reach any conclusions from them. Record your conclusions in the diary.

•  Practise reviewing after a meeting or event of some kind. Go back over the sequence of events identifying what went well and what could have gone better. If possible, record some conversations and play back the audio cassette at least twice, reviewing what happened in great detail. List lessons learned from this activity.

•  Give yourself something to research, something that requires the painstaking gathering of data from different sources. Go to your local library and spend a few hours in the reference section.

•  Practise producing highly polished pieces of writing. Give yourself essays to write on various topics (perhaps something you have researched). Write a report or paper about something. Draft watertight policy statements, agreements or procedures. When you have written something, put it aside for a week then force yourself to return to it and do a substantial rewrite.

•  Practise drawing up lists for and against a particular course of action. Take a contentious issue and produce balanced arguments from both points of view. Whenever you are with people who want to rush into action, caution them to consider options and to anticipate the consequences.


STRENGTHENING YOUR UNDER DEVELOPED PRAGMATIST STYLE

Pragmatists tend to be practical, down to earth and realistic. They like 'how to' hints and techniques.

The implications of having an underdeveloped Pragmatist style are that you will tend to:

•  Hanker after perfect solutions to problems rather than settling for something practical and less elegant
•  Dismiss techniques as gimmicks and fads with limited usefulness
•  Engage in discursive, open-ended dialogue with little focus and vague outcomes
•  Be wary of specific plans and actions that commit you to deliverables and target dates.

So, by developing your Pragmatist style you will be:

•  Prepared to try out new ideas, theories and techniques sooner rather than later to see if they work in practice
•  Open to the latest techniques and prepared to adapt them so that they are tailor-made for your circumstances
•  More business-like in meetings and discussions
•  More focused on objectives, targets, and outcomes that make a difference/add value.

How to Strengthen your Pragmatist Style

The first task is to decide what aspects you would like to develop.

The next step is to plan some actions that will give you practice in developing your Pragmatist style. Before planning these actions it is best to consider what is inhibiting you from being more of a Pragmatist, which may include:

•  a preference for perfect (rather than practical) solutions to problems
•  seeing even useful techniques as oversimplifications or gimmicks
•  enjoying interesting diversions (and being side-tracked)
•  leaving things open-ended rather than committing to specific action
•  believing that someone else's ideas will not work in your situation.

The actions with which you plan to improve your Pragmatist style must be feasible and specific. Clearly you are more likely to action the plan if you avoid flinging yourself in at the deep end; it is best to start in the shallow end and graduate to deeper water.

Depending on your starting point, some of the suggestions that follow might strike you as too ambitious. If so, you might like to break them down into smaller, more feasible steps. Since your development plans need to be tailor-made to suit your circumstances, we can only offer a variety of suggestions in the hope that they act as useful thought starters.

•  Collect techniques, i.e. practical ways of doing things. The techniques can be about anything potentially useful to you. They might be analytical techniques such as critical path analysis or cost benefit analysis. They might be interpersonal techniques drawn from Transactional Analysis, NLP, or assertiveness/presentation techniques. They might be timesaving techniques or statistical techniques, or techniques to improve your memory, cope with stress or reduce your blood pressure!

•  In meetings and discussions of any kind (progress meetings, problem solving meetings, planning meetings, appraisals, negotiations, sales calls, etc) concentrate on producing action plans. Make it a rule never to emerge from a meeting or discussion without a list of actions either for yourself or for others or both. The action plans should be specific and include a deadline (eg "I will produce a report for my manager by 31st May", "Bill will produce a 2-page paper listing alternative bonus schemes by 1st June").

•  Make opportunities to experiment with some of your newfound techniques. Try them out in practice. If your experiment involves other people then tell them openly that you are conducting an experiment and explain the technique that is about to be tested. (This reduces embarrassment if, in the event, the technique is a flop!) Choose the time and place for your experiments. Avoid situations where a lot is at stake and where the risks of failure are unacceptably high. Experiment in routine settings with people whose aid or support you can enlist.

•  Study techniques that other people use and then model yourself on them. Pick up techniques from your boss, your boss's boss, your colleagues, your subordinates, visiting salespeople, interviewers on television, politicians, actors and actresses, your next door neighbour. When you discover something they do well - emulate them.

•  Subject yourself to scrutiny from 'experts' so that they can watch your technique and coach you in how to improve it. For example, get an accomplished presenter to give you feedback on your presentation techniques. It's the equivalent of having a coaching session with a golfing professional.

•  Tackle a 'do-it-yourself' project - it doesn't matter if you aren't good with your hands. Pragmatists are practical and, if only for practice purposes, DIY activities help to develop a practical outlook. Renovate a piece of furniture, put up a shelf. At work, calculate your own statistics once in a while instead of relying on a printout, do your own organisation and methods study, go and visit the shop floor in search of practical problems to solve.

BALANCING AND ADAPTING LEARNING STYLES

You are best equipped to learn from a wide variety of different experiences if you have more or less equal preferences for all four learning styles. This is because the stages in the learning cycle are equal contributors to the total process of learning from experience.

STRENGTHENING YOUR THEORIST STYLE

Theorists tend to be rational and analytical. They like logical structures and to ask probing questions to expose flawed, inconsistent thinking.

The implications of having an underdeveloped Theorist style are that you will tend to:

•  Take things at face value and jump to conclusions that are flimsy and unsubstantiated
•  Prefer short term tactics to longer term strategy and fail to appreciate the importance of the big picture
•  Dislike the discipline of routines, processes and procedures
•  Regard theories, frameworks and models as being rather academic and esoteric.

So, by developing your Theorist style you will be:

•  Better at questioning and probing inconsistencies and weaknesses in people's arguments.
•  More interested in relating your actions to an overall strategy
•  More disciplined with tidier, more organised working practices
•  More tolerant of models and theories and of explaining their potential relevance/usefulness to your work.

How to Strengthen your Theorist Style

The first task is to decide what aspects you would like to develop.

•  Read something 'heavy' and thought-provoking for at least 30 minutes each day. Try tackling a text book on management or read some philosophy. Whatever you elect to read, afterwards try to summarise it in your own words.

•  Practise spotting inconsistencies/weaknesses in other people's arguments. Go through reports highlighting inconsistencies. Analyse organisation charts to discover overlaps and conflicts. Take two newspapers of different persuasions and regularly do a comparative analysis of the differences in their points of view.

•  Take a complex situation and analyse it to pinpoint why it developed the way it did. What could have been done differently and at what stage? The situations could be historical or something drawn from current affairs, or something you have been involved in personally. You could, for example, do a detailed analysis of how you spend your time, or list the people you interact with, with what frequency and with what results.

•  Collect other people's theories, hypotheses and explanations about events; they might be about environmental issues, theology, the natural sciences, human behaviour - anything providing it is a topic with many different, and preferably contradictory, theories. Try to understand the underlying assumptions each theory is based upon and see if you can group similar theories together.

•  Practise structuring situations so that they are orderly and more certain to proceed in the way you predict. For example, plan a conference where delegates are going to work in different groupings. Structure the timetable, the tasks, the plenary sessions. Or try structuring a meeting by having a clear purpose, an agenda and a planned beginning, middle and end.

•  Practise asking probing questions - the sort of questions that get to the bottom of things. Refuse to be fobbed off with platitudes or vague answers. Particularly ask questions designed to find out precisely why something has occurred: "Why is absenteeism increasing?", "Why do more women than men smoke?", "What is the relationship between this problem and what happened last week?"


STRENGTHENING AN UNDER DEVELOPED ACTIVIST STYLE

Activists tend to be flexible, open minded and happy to try out new things. They enjoy getting involved and participating with others

The implications of having an underdeveloped Activist style are that you will tend to:

•  Be wary of going at risk and having a go at something you haven't tried before
•  Be reluctant to go outside your comfort zone and experiment with new or unfamiliar ways of doing things
•  Find it difficult to suspend judgement and think 'outside the box'/think laterally/innovatively
•  Be suspicious of decisions based more on intuition and what 'feels right' than on hard data/logic.

So, by developing your Activist style you will be:

•  Prepared to take more calculated risks and try something earlier with less preparation
•  Happier to experiment with new and unfamiliar routines and processes
•  Better able to brainstorm spontaneous, off-the-top-of-the-head, creative ideas
•  Less dependent on exhaustive data collection prior to making decisions on the best way forward.



How to Strengthen your Activist Style

The first task is to decide what aspects you would like to develop.

•  Do something new, i.e. something that you have never done before, at least once each week. Visit a part of your organisation you have neglected, go jogging at lunch time, wear something outrageous to work one day, read an unfamiliar newspaper with very different views to your own, change the layout of your office, etc.

•  Practise initiating conversations (especially 'small talk') with strangers. Select people at random from your internal telephone directory and go and talk to them. At large gatherings, conferences or parties, force yourself to initiate and sustain conversations with everyone present. In your spare time, go door to door canvassing for a cause of your choice.

•  Deliberately fragment your day by chopping and changing activities each half hour. Make the switch as diverse as possible, for example, if you have had half an hour of cerebral activity, switch to doing something utterly routine and mechanical. If you have been sitting down, stand up. If you have been talking, keep quiet, and so on.

•  Force yourself into the limelight. Volunteer whenever possible to chair meetings or give presentations. When you attend a meeting, set yourself the challenge of making a substantial contribution within 10 minutes of the start of the meeting. Get on a soapbox and make a speech at Speaker's Corner.

•  Practise thinking aloud and on your feet. Set yourself a problem and bounce ideas off a colleague (see if, between you, you can generate 50 ideas in 10 minutes). Get some colleagues/friends to join in a game where you give each other topics and have to give an impromptu speech lasting at least 5 minutes.


STRENGHTENING AN UNDER DEVELOPED REFLECTOR STYLE

Reflectors tend to be methodical, thorough and careful. They enjoy gathering data by reading and listening.

The implications of having an underdeveloped Reflector style are that you will tend to:

•  Rush into things with inadequate preparation and thought for the possible consequences
•  Find it difficult to make time to pause and review experiences/identify lessons learned
•  Become impatient with data collection, reading extensively and listening hard for long periods
•  Pay insufficient attention to benefiting from other people's experiences and therefore make unnecessary mistakes and reinvent wheels.

So, by developing your Reflector style you will be:

•  Happier to engage in thorough preparation prior to decision making/problem solving
•  Prepared to set time aside to mull over experiences, clarify lessons learned and think through what to do better or differently
•  More patient with researching a topic, gathering relevant data and generally checking things out
•  More respectful of other people's experiences and a better listener.

How to Strengthen your Reflector Style

The first task is to decide what aspects you would like to develop.

The next step is to plan some actions that will give you practice in developing your Reflector style. Before planning these actions it is best to consider what is inhibiting you from being more of a Reflector, which may include:

•  being short of time to plan or think
•  preferring to move quickly from one activity to another
•  being impatient for action
•  a reluctance to listen carefully and analytically
•  a reluctance to write things down.

One route is simply to choose an item you crossed and experiment with behaving that way on some occasions. This might, however, be too contrary to your preferred ways of thinking and behaving. If so, it might suit you to pick up one of the specific suggestions below.

The actions with which you plan to improve your Reflector style must be feasible and specific. Clearly you are more likely to action the plan if you avoid flinging yourself in at the deep end; it is best to start in the shallow end and graduate to deeper water.

Depending on your starting point, some of the suggestions that follow might strike you as too ambitious. If so, you might like to break them down into smaller, more feasible steps. Since your development plans need to be tailor-made to suit your circumstances, we can only offer a variety of suggestions in the hope that they act as useful thought starters.

•  Practise observing, especially at meetings where there are agenda items that do not directly involve you. Study people's behaviour. Keep records about who does the most talking, who interrupts whom, what triggers disagreements, how often the chairperson summarises and so on. Also study non-verbal behaviour. When do people lean forward and lean back? Count how many times people emphasise a point with a gesture. When do people fold their arms, look at their watches, chew their pens etc?

•  Keep a diary and each evening write an account of what happened during the day. Reflect on the day's events and see if you can reach any conclusions from them. Record your conclusions in the diary.

•  Practise reviewing after a meeting or event of some kind. Go back over the sequence of events identifying what went well and what could have gone better. If possible, record some conversations and play back the audio cassette at least twice, reviewing what happened in great detail. List lessons learned from this activity.

•  Give yourself something to research, something that requires the painstaking gathering of data from different sources. Go to your local library and spend a few hours in the reference section.

•  Practise producing highly polished pieces of writing. Give yourself essays to write on various topics (perhaps something you have researched). Write a report or paper about something. Draft watertight policy statements, agreements or procedures. When you have written something, put it aside for a week then force yourself to return to it and do a substantial rewrite.

•  Practise drawing up lists for and against a particular course of action. Take a contentious issue and produce balanced arguments from both points of view. Whenever you are with people who want to rush into action, caution them to consider options and to anticipate the consequences.


STRENGTHENING YOUR UNDER DEVELOPED PRAGMATIST STYLE

Pragmatists tend to be practical, down to earth and realistic. They like 'how to' hints and techniques.

The implications of having an underdeveloped Pragmatist style are that you will tend to:

•  Hanker after perfect solutions to problems rather than settling for something practical and less elegant
•  Dismiss techniques as gimmicks and fads with limited usefulness
•  Engage in discursive, open-ended dialogue with little focus and vague outcomes
•  Be wary of specific plans and actions that commit you to deliverables and target dates.

So, by developing your Pragmatist style you will be:

•  Prepared to try out new ideas, theories and techniques sooner rather than later to see if they work in practice
•  Open to the latest techniques and prepared to adapt them so that they are tailor-made for your circumstances
•  More business-like in meetings and discussions
•  More focused on objectives, targets, and outcomes that make a difference/add value.

How to Strengthen your Pragmatist Style

The first task is to decide what aspects you would like to develop.

The next step is to plan some actions that will give you practice in developing your Pragmatist style. Before planning these actions it is best to consider what is inhibiting you from being more of a Pragmatist, which may include:

•  a preference for perfect (rather than practical) solutions to problems
•  seeing even useful techniques as oversimplifications or gimmicks
•  enjoying interesting diversions (and being side-tracked)
•  leaving things open-ended rather than committing to specific action
•  believing that someone else's ideas will not work in your situation.

The actions with which you plan to improve your Pragmatist style must be feasible and specific. Clearly you are more likely to action the plan if you avoid flinging yourself in at the deep end; it is best to start in the shallow end and graduate to deeper water.

Depending on your starting point, some of the suggestions that follow might strike you as too ambitious. If so, you might like to break them down into smaller, more feasible steps. Since your development plans need to be tailor-made to suit your circumstances, we can only offer a variety of suggestions in the hope that they act as useful thought starters.

•  Collect techniques, i.e. practical ways of doing things. The techniques can be about anything potentially useful to you. They might be analytical techniques such as critical path analysis or cost benefit analysis. They might be interpersonal techniques drawn from Transactional Analysis, NLP, or assertiveness/presentation techniques. They might be timesaving techniques or statistical techniques, or techniques to improve your memory, cope with stress or reduce your blood pressure!

•  In meetings and discussions of any kind (progress meetings, problem solving meetings, planning meetings, appraisals, negotiations, sales calls, etc) concentrate on producing action plans. Make it a rule never to emerge from a meeting or discussion without a list of actions either for yourself or for others or both. The action plans should be specific and include a deadline (eg "I will produce a report for my manager by 31st May", "Bill will produce a 2-page paper listing alternative bonus schemes by 1st June").

•  Make opportunities to experiment with some of your newfound techniques. Try them out in practice. If your experiment involves other people then tell them openly that you are conducting an experiment and explain the technique that is about to be tested. (This reduces embarrassment if, in the event, the technique is a flop!) Choose the time and place for your experiments. Avoid situations where a lot is at stake and where the risks of failure are unacceptably high. Experiment in routine settings with people whose aid or support you can enlist.

•  Study techniques that other people use and then model yourself on them. Pick up techniques from your boss, your boss's boss, your colleagues, your subordinates, visiting salespeople, interviewers on television, politicians, actors and actresses, your next door neighbour. When you discover something they do well - emulate them.

•  Subject yourself to scrutiny from 'experts' so that they can watch your technique and coach you in how to improve it. For example, get an accomplished presenter to give you feedback on your presentation techniques. It's the equivalent of having a coaching session with a golfing professional.

•  Tackle a 'do-it-yourself' project - it doesn't matter if you aren't good with your hands. Pragmatists are practical and, if only for practice purposes, DIY activities help to develop a practical outlook. Renovate a piece of furniture, put up a shelf. At work, calculate your own statistics once in a while instead of relying on a printout, do your own organisation and methods study, go and visit the shop floor in search of practical problems to solve.

 Print